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Reflective models in teacher supervision introduced by Education 4.0: The teacher in the mirror

Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 17, 27.12.2017

Öz

The dynamic changes in the world have led to transformation from agricultural society to industrial society introducing more advancement in information technology and innovation called as the Economy 4.0 era. Therefore, it is essential for the teachers to keep pace with changes in order to be competitive and this is a new challenge to redefine the new Education 4.0, to determine the creative and innovative teachers.  It is also a challenge for the learner to seek the learning outcome with regard to the learning management by the teacher. Questioning the current supervision system of Turkey, this paper discusses innovative reflective models in teacher supervision posed by Education 4.0 and their utilization within the educational contexts. Inadequate number of supervisors and demands on supervisors posed by the current learner-based innovations both in and out of educational contexts have directed many to doubt about the quality of the supervision, actual time spent for the development of teachers and collaboration for better teaching and better learning. Reflection gives teachers a chance to self-evaluate their teaching practices. Teachers grow professionally if they rethink on their actual teaching practices together with the prospective improvements. The essential goal of reflective teacher supervision is to create an environment for teacher inquiry, a teacher-administrator-driven form of professional growth. With its reconfigured supervision roles and relationship, it mainly reconceptualizes the meaning of supervision, in which schools can try to challenge an embedded traditional 'top-down,' hierarchical paradigm, with the teachers themselves at the bottom as passive recipients of training. This paper also includes a description of how reflective models go about helping teachers use their own thought process to develop both learning and teaching. It also describes the processes of individual reflective practices like teacher portfolios, journals; partner reflective practices including peer coaching, cognitive coaching; small group reflective practices such as action research, study groups, and school-based practices like classroom walk-throughs and instructional rounds. Finally, it concludes with how reflective practices and professional learning communities according to Education 4.0 are promoted.

Kaynakça

  • Arter, A. J., & Spandel, V. (1992). Using portfolios of student work in instruction and assessment. Education Measurement: Issues and Practices, 11, 36-44.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
  • Bandura, A. (2006a). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In F. Pajares, & T. Urban (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Bullock, A. A., & Hawk, P. P. (2005). Developing a teaching portfolio: A guide for preservice and practicing teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • City, E. A., Elmore, R. F., Fiarman, S.E., & Teitel, L. (2009). Instructional rounds in education: A network approach to improving teaching and learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
  • Cooper, C., & Boyd, J. (1998). Creating sustained professional development. In C. Brody & N. Davidson (Eds.), Professional development for cooperative learning: Issues and approaches. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Corey, S. M. (1953). Action research to improve school practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Costa, A., & Garmston, R. (1994). Cognitive Coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
  • Costa, A., & Garmston, R. (2002). Cognitive coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
  • Cunliffe, A. (2004). On becoming a critically reflexive practitioner. Journal of Management Education, 28(4), 407-426.
  • Downey, C., English, F., Frase, L., Poston, W., & Steffy, B. (2004). The three-minute classroom walk-through. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Providence, Rhode Island: Northwest and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
  • Fink, R., & Resnick, L. (2001). Developing principals as instructional leaders. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(8), 598-606.
  • Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc
  • Glickman, C. D. (1981). Developmental supervision: Alternative practices for helping teachers improve instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Goldie, J. G. S. (2016). Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?. Medical teacher, 38(10),1064-1069. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2016.1173661
  • Gomaratat.S. (2015). Subject: Learning productivity, stated in Sinlarat. P. (2015). 10 ways of progressive learning encouraging/facilitating the ability of the learner of 21st century. Bangkok: Education Science, Dhurakit Bandit University
  • Göker, S. D. (2006a). Leading for learning: Reflective management in EFL. Theory into Practice, 45(2), 187-196.
  • Göker, S. D. (2006b). Impact of peer coaching on self-efficacy and instructional skills in TEFL teacher education. System, And International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 34(2), 239-254.
  • Göker, S. D. (2012). Reflective leadership in EFL. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(8), 1355-1362.
  • Göker, S. D. (2016). Use of reflective journals in development of teachers' leadership and teaching skills. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(12A), 63-70. http://www.hrpub.org, DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2016.041309.
  • Hatton, N., and Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Unpublished manuscript. School of Teaching and Curriculum Studies, The University of Sydney, Australia.
  • Harkins, A. M. (2008). Leapfrog principles and practices: Core components of education 3.0 and 4.0. Futures Research Quarterly, 24(1), 19-31.
  • Holly, M. L. (1989). Writing to grow: Keeping a personal-professional journal. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books, Inc.
  • Jeschke.S. (2014). Higher education 4.0- Trends and future perspectives for teaching and learning. Virtuelle Lernwelten in der Universitat Frankfurt am Main
  • Joyce, B., and Showers, B. (1996). Student achievement through staff development (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. Koanantakool. T. (2016). Digital park for engineering design and productivity. Document supporting a lecture Digital Thailand 2016.
  • Makibbin, S. S., & Spraque, M. M. (1991, December). Study groups: Conduit for reform. A paper presented at the meeting of the National Staff Development Council, St.
  • Santa, C. G. Short, & K. Smith (Eds.), Teachers are researchers: Reflection and action. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  • Merriam, S. B. (1993). An update on adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2009). Retrieved on July 15, 2016, from http://www.nbpts.org
  • Pooworawan.Y. (2015). Challenges of new frontier in learning: Education 4.0. Document by Innovative Learning Center, Chulalongkorn University, DusitThani Hotel, Bangkok
  • Ramsey, V. J., & Fitzgibbons, D. (2005). Being in the classroom. Journal of Management Education, 29(2), 333-356.
  • Rainer, T. (1978). The new diary: How to use a journal for self-guidance and expanded creativity. Los Angeles, CA: J. P. Tarcher, Inc.
  • Schon, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc.
  • Schon, D.A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sinlarat.P.(2016). Education 4.0 is more than education. Annual Academic Seminar of the Teacher’s Council 2016 on the topic of Research of the Learning Innovation and Sustainable Educational Management. Bangkok: The Secretariat Office of Teacher’s Council
  • Smyth, J. (1989). Developing and sustaining critical reflection in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 40(2), 2-9. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York, NY: Free Press.
  • Thorn, A., McLeod, M., & Goldsmith, M. (2007). Peer coaching overview. Retrieved March 13, 2016, from http://www.marshallgoldsmithlibrary.com
  • Varner, D., & Peck, S. (2003). Learning from learning journals: The benefits and challenges of using learning journal assignments. Journal of Management Education, 27(1), 52-77.
  • York-Barr, J., Sommers, W.A., Ghere, G.S., & Montie, J. (2001). Reflective practice to improve schools: An action guide for educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 17, 27.12.2017

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Arter, A. J., & Spandel, V. (1992). Using portfolios of student work in instruction and assessment. Education Measurement: Issues and Practices, 11, 36-44.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
  • Bandura, A. (2006a). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In F. Pajares, & T. Urban (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.
  • Bullock, A. A., & Hawk, P. P. (2005). Developing a teaching portfolio: A guide for preservice and practicing teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • City, E. A., Elmore, R. F., Fiarman, S.E., & Teitel, L. (2009). Instructional rounds in education: A network approach to improving teaching and learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
  • Cooper, C., & Boyd, J. (1998). Creating sustained professional development. In C. Brody & N. Davidson (Eds.), Professional development for cooperative learning: Issues and approaches. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Corey, S. M. (1953). Action research to improve school practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Costa, A., & Garmston, R. (1994). Cognitive Coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
  • Costa, A., & Garmston, R. (2002). Cognitive coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
  • Cunliffe, A. (2004). On becoming a critically reflexive practitioner. Journal of Management Education, 28(4), 407-426.
  • Downey, C., English, F., Frase, L., Poston, W., & Steffy, B. (2004). The three-minute classroom walk-through. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Providence, Rhode Island: Northwest and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
  • Fink, R., & Resnick, L. (2001). Developing principals as instructional leaders. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(8), 598-606.
  • Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc
  • Glickman, C. D. (1981). Developmental supervision: Alternative practices for helping teachers improve instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Goldie, J. G. S. (2016). Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?. Medical teacher, 38(10),1064-1069. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2016.1173661
  • Gomaratat.S. (2015). Subject: Learning productivity, stated in Sinlarat. P. (2015). 10 ways of progressive learning encouraging/facilitating the ability of the learner of 21st century. Bangkok: Education Science, Dhurakit Bandit University
  • Göker, S. D. (2006a). Leading for learning: Reflective management in EFL. Theory into Practice, 45(2), 187-196.
  • Göker, S. D. (2006b). Impact of peer coaching on self-efficacy and instructional skills in TEFL teacher education. System, And International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 34(2), 239-254.
  • Göker, S. D. (2012). Reflective leadership in EFL. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(8), 1355-1362.
  • Göker, S. D. (2016). Use of reflective journals in development of teachers' leadership and teaching skills. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(12A), 63-70. http://www.hrpub.org, DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2016.041309.
  • Hatton, N., and Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Unpublished manuscript. School of Teaching and Curriculum Studies, The University of Sydney, Australia.
  • Harkins, A. M. (2008). Leapfrog principles and practices: Core components of education 3.0 and 4.0. Futures Research Quarterly, 24(1), 19-31.
  • Holly, M. L. (1989). Writing to grow: Keeping a personal-professional journal. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books, Inc.
  • Jeschke.S. (2014). Higher education 4.0- Trends and future perspectives for teaching and learning. Virtuelle Lernwelten in der Universitat Frankfurt am Main
  • Joyce, B., and Showers, B. (1996). Student achievement through staff development (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. Koanantakool. T. (2016). Digital park for engineering design and productivity. Document supporting a lecture Digital Thailand 2016.
  • Makibbin, S. S., & Spraque, M. M. (1991, December). Study groups: Conduit for reform. A paper presented at the meeting of the National Staff Development Council, St.
  • Santa, C. G. Short, & K. Smith (Eds.), Teachers are researchers: Reflection and action. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  • Merriam, S. B. (1993). An update on adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2009). Retrieved on July 15, 2016, from http://www.nbpts.org
  • Pooworawan.Y. (2015). Challenges of new frontier in learning: Education 4.0. Document by Innovative Learning Center, Chulalongkorn University, DusitThani Hotel, Bangkok
  • Ramsey, V. J., & Fitzgibbons, D. (2005). Being in the classroom. Journal of Management Education, 29(2), 333-356.
  • Rainer, T. (1978). The new diary: How to use a journal for self-guidance and expanded creativity. Los Angeles, CA: J. P. Tarcher, Inc.
  • Schon, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc.
  • Schon, D.A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sinlarat.P.(2016). Education 4.0 is more than education. Annual Academic Seminar of the Teacher’s Council 2016 on the topic of Research of the Learning Innovation and Sustainable Educational Management. Bangkok: The Secretariat Office of Teacher’s Council
  • Smyth, J. (1989). Developing and sustaining critical reflection in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 40(2), 2-9. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York, NY: Free Press.
  • Thorn, A., McLeod, M., & Goldsmith, M. (2007). Peer coaching overview. Retrieved March 13, 2016, from http://www.marshallgoldsmithlibrary.com
  • Varner, D., & Peck, S. (2003). Learning from learning journals: The benefits and challenges of using learning journal assignments. Journal of Management Education, 27(1), 52-77.
  • York-Barr, J., Sommers, W.A., Ghere, G.S., & Montie, J. (2001). Reflective practice to improve schools: An action guide for educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Süleyman Davut GÖKER
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi, Artvin, Türkiye
0000-0003-3291-7879
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Aralık 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Göker, S. D. (2017). Reflective models in teacher supervision introduced by Education 4.0: The teacher in the mirror . Studies in Educational Research and Development , 1 (1) , 1-17 . Retrieved from http://serd.artvin.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/31977/353409

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